WSC 2009

WSC 2009 Final Abstracts

Applications - Military Applications Track

Monday 10:30:00 AM 12:00:00 PM
Military Keynote - Pamela Belchinger

Chair: Arnold Buss (TRAC Fort Leavenworth)

Monday 1:30:00 PM 3:00:00 PM
Military Simulation Analysis Methods

Chair: Darryl Ahner (United States Military Academy)

A Framework for the Optimization and Analysis of Agent-Based Models
Benjamin Thengvall and Fred Glover (OptTek Systems, Inc.)

OptAgent is a new framework which enhances the practical applications of agent-based models by giving them an optimization and analysis capability. Embedding such an ability within agent-based systems greatly expands their usefulness and applicability. Developed through an Army Research Office SBIR Phase II grant, OptAgent is built on our existing OptQuest engine to create a system that can be used alike with agent-based and other complex simulation models. Important components of the OptAgent system include new predictors based on Markov blankets and satisfiability data mining that speed the search for high quality solutions. OptAgent is structured to assist with the verification, validation, and accreditation process for a new model and can also be used to enhance the analysis accomplished with a more mature model.

A Normalized Weighted Entropy Measure for Sensor Allocation Within Simulations
Darryl K. Ahner (United States Military Academy)

Information superiority is considered a critical capability for future joint forces. Sensor allocation and information processing are critical to achieving this information superiority but the value of information is difficult to assess. We develop a weighted entropy measure for sensor allocation within simulations by using the Dynamic Model of Situated Cognition as a framework in which to value the processing and flow of information in a complex technological-cognitive system. The entropy measure developed is normalized across each requirement and weighted according to the Commander’s priorities within the phase of that operation. We develop a methodology for implementation for this normalized weighted entropy measure to allocate sensors within a combat simulation.

Tuesday 8:30:00 AM 10:00:00 AM
Military Applications

Chair: Paul Sanchez (Naval Postgraduate School)

Real World Data Collection for Model Validation
Alan Cowdale (Air Warfare Centre)

The Operational Analysis Element of the Air Warfare Centre provides the scientific support to front line units of the Royal Air Force, and consequently is required to develop, maintain and use simulation models and tools for addressing a range of military problems. On occasions there will be opportunities to undertake controlled trials to collect data for model validation. While potentially immensely valuable for the validation of the simulation, trials can present their own challenges and analysis issues.

Analyzing Production Modifications of a C-130 Engine Repair Facility Using Simulation
Jeremy D. Jordan (Air Force Research Laboratory), Sharif Melouk (University of Alabama) and Paul Faas (Air Force Research Laboratory)

The LRAFB C-130 engine repair facility is one of the top T-56 engine refurbishing plants in the United States Air Force. Currently, the shop is prevented from testing potential contingencies within their environment due to the rapid nature of their engine repair process. A simulation approach is needed to test various scenarios and determine the maximum capacity the shop can handle in its current configuration. Particularly, the simulation describes the consequences of increasing engine production on the shops personnel and throughput production figures for several policy variations. A detailed verification and validation of the model are shown, establishing the computational efficacy of the model in preparation for the comparative analysis. The model is a starting block for an Air Force wide analysis of C-130 engine rebuilding production needs with an overarching goal of standardization in repair methods and efficient operations.

Calibration of an Agent-Based Simulation Model Depicting a Refugee Camp Scenario
Rachel T. Johnson (Naval Postgraduate School), Thorsten Lampe (EADS Defence and Security) and Stephan Seichter (Bundeswehr Transformation Center)

This paper describes the use of the design and analysis of experiments to calibrate an agent-based simulation model of a peace-keeping mission. The situation depicted is a refugee camp scenario in which deescalation of enraged civilians is required by military personnel. Calibration was determined by ensuring that the military actions in the simulation properly followed the typical rules of engagement and the expected reactions of both civilians and military forces. The expectations were determined by subject matter experts including active military personnel and psychologists.

Tuesday 10:30:00 AM 12:00:00 PM
Modeling with Federations

Chair: Kirk Stork (Zenuvo, LLC)

Multi-Resolution Federations in Support of Operational and Higher Level Combined/Joint Computer Assisted Exercises
Erdal Cayirci (NATO Joint Warfare Center - University of Stavanger)

Multi-resolution military federations are still in their infancy. Their usefulness are often discussed and there is a confusion about the related taxonomy. In this paper, first the definitions for the field are clarified, and the latest developments are explained. Computer assisted exercise architectures and the place of constructive simulations in this architecture are also explained. Then the advantages of multi-resolution federations in support of computer assisted exercises are elaborated by using an example vignette.

Application of Multi-Objective Bee Colony Optimization Algorithm to Automated Red Teaming
Malcolm Yoke Hean Low and Mahinthan Chandramohan (Nanyang Technological University) and Chwee Seng Choo (DSO National Laboratories)

Automated Red Teaming (ART) is an automated process for Manual Red Teaming which is a technique frequently used by the Military Operational Analysis community to uncover vulnerabilities in operational tactics. The ART makes use of multi-objective evolutionary algorithms such as SPEAII and NSGAII to effectively find a set of non-dominated solutions from a large search space. This paper investigates the use of a multi-objective bee colony optimization (MOBCO) algorithm with Automated Red Teaming. The performance of the MOBCO algorithm is first compared with a well known evolutionary algorithm NSGAII using a set of benchmark functions. The MOBCO algorithm is then integrated into the ART framework and tested using a maritime case study involving the defence of an anchorage. Our experimental results show that the MOBCO algorithm proposed is able to achieve comparable or better results compared to NSGAII in both the benchmark function and the ART maritime scenario.

Tuesday 1:30:00 PM 3:00:00 PM
Simulation Architectures

Chair: Eugene Paulo (Naval Postgraduate School)

Architecture for Comparing Alternative Designs of a Tactical Naval Command and Control System Using Discrete-Event Simulation
Shaun P. Hayes (Naval Sea Systems Command) and Eugene P. Paulo (Naval Postgraduate School)

Research was conducted recently at Naval Postgraduate School focusing on the development of a system architecture for a tactical naval Command and Control (C2) system. The system architecture methodology started with describing an operational concept, moved to the co-development of the functional architecture and the physical architecture, and concluded with the development of a notional operational architecture. A portion of the contact prosecution process for a Surface Action Group (SAG) involved in securing local sea control was modeled in the discrete-event simulation software Arena®, and this effort is the focus of this paper. Simulations for both potential alternative designs were conducted. Finally, a comparison of the simulation results demonstrated the feasibility of the developed architecture framework to compare alternative designs of the C2 system.